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In re Southeastern Milk Antitrust Litigation

June 6, 2008


The opinion of the court was delivered by: J. Ronnie Greer United States District Judge

Judge J. Ronnie Greer

Magistrate Judge Dennis H. Inman


This matter is before the Court on the motion of Southern Marketing Agency, Inc. ("SMA") and James Baird ("Baird") to dismiss plaintiffs' complaints for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Variations of the motion had been filed in all the cases except No. 2:07-CV-272 and No. 2:08-CV-53 and this order is intended to dispose of the pending motions in all cases. As grounds, SMA and Baird argue that plaintiffs' complaints fail to state a claim on which relief can be granted because (1) the Capper-Volstead Act, 7 U.S.C. § 291, immunizes SMA and Baird for the conduct alleged against them; (2) the filed rate doctrine bars plaintiffs' claims against SMA and Baird; and (3) plaintiffs have failed to plead specific allegations against SMA and Baird as required by Bell Atlantic v. Twombly, 127 S.Ct.1955 (2007). At least one of the motions filed also raises issues related to counts 3, 4 and 6 of the plaintiffs' complaint. The issue raised by plaintiffs with respect to Bell Atlantic v. Twombly was the subject of a prior order. This order will address the other issues raised by defendants. For the reasons which follow, the motions of SMA and Baird will be DENIED.

I. Background

Plaintiffs in these cases have sued various entities and/or individuals involved in either the marketing and sale of milk on behalf of dairy farmers or the purchase and processing of that milk. Plaintiffs have filed these actions on behalf of themselves and as a class action on behalf of various proposed classes. The complaints generally allege a far ranging conspiracy and combination among the various defendants to eliminate competition and fix prices in violation of § 1 of the Sherman Act and to monopolize and monopsonize in violation of § 2 of the Sherman Act. The complaints allege various other causes of action; however, the defendants SMA and Baird are named as defendants only in the conspiracy counts of the complaints. SMA is named as a defendant in all complaints and Baird is named as a defendant in the Sweetwater, Baisley and Breto complaints.

II. Factual Allegations

The following facts, taken as true for purposes of these motions, are from plaintiffs' complaints:

In 2001, Dean Foods ("Dean") and National Dairy Holdings, L.P. ("NDH"), the two largest milk bottlers in the United States, entered into long-term full-supply agreements*fn1 with Dairy Farmers of America, Inc. ("DFA") for the supply of raw Grade A milk to Dean's and NDH's bottling plants in the Southeast. These agreements vested DFA with control over access to Dean's and NDH's bottling plants, which amount to 77 percent of the fluid Grade A milk bottling capacity in the Southeast. DFA also jointly owns eight bottling plants in the Southeast which it also supplies exclusively.

Access to bottling plants is critical to Southeast dairy cooperatives since each month their dairy farmer members must "touch base," which is a regulatory requirement that dairy farmers deliver certain minimum quantities of their monthly milk production to bottling plants in order to qualify to participate in the Federal Milk Program. DFA's own membership in the Southeast lacked the milk production necessary to meet the requirements of its long term full-supply agreements with Dean, NDH and others. Defendants agreed that DFA would establish SMA, and that defendants would require previously independent dairy cooperatives to join SMA as a condition of access to defendants' bottling plants. SMA played a central role in implementing and maintaining defendants' conspiracy to eliminate competition for the purchase of Grade A milk.

Pursuant to this conspiracy, for example, Dean and DFA forced Maryland & Virginia Milk Producers Cooperative Association, Inc. to join SMA in order to have continued access to Dean's bottling plants. Other dairy cooperatives were subjected to the same coercive threats, and had no choice but to join SMA or lose access to bottling plants. As the result of defendants' agreement to force dairy cooperatives to join SMA as a condition to access defendants' bottling plants, SMA gained control of 90 percent of the milk produced in the Southeast.

SMA began operating in April 2002. Defendants designed SMA to "market" dairy farmers' Grade A milk to bottling plants in the Southeast in order to carry out the goals of defendants' conspiracy to monopolize, stabilize prices paid to farmers and engage in other unlawful acts specified in the complaint. "Marketing" milk in this context consists of SMA coordinating the hauling of milk from dairy farms to bottling plants, reporting related data to the USDA, and calculating prices for Grade A milk paid to dairy cooperatives or independent dairy farmers, less SMA and defendants' fees and expenses.

Baird is the general manager of SMA. As general manager, Baird has directed, participated in and authorized SMA's unlawful conduct. This participation includes Baird's attendance at numerous meetings with DFA and SMA management, and with dairy farmers and cooperatives. Baird is also the principal owner, officer and manager of several for-profit businesses that, under his control and direction, have participated in the conspiracy through defendants' agreement to utilize Baird and his for-profit businesses to haul milk for SMA. These businesses include Lone Star Milk Transport, Inc., BullsEye Transport, LLC and Bullseye Logistics, LLC.

SMA, Baird and other defendants have maintained SMA's market power by collectively enforcing compliance with their conspiracy. SMA, Dean, NDH and others have acquired the Grade A milk sold to defendants' bottling plants by dairy cooperatives being marketed pursuant to DFA's full-supply agreements, e.g., marketed by SMA, and Dean and NDH have refused to accept milk from dairy cooperatives that resist joining SMA. Consequently, dairy cooperatives must join SMA in order for their dairy farmer members to have access to bottling plants in the Southeast. SMA has monitored compliance with the conspiracy through its marketing of milk sold pursuant to defendants' conspiracy, including tracking prices paid by defendants and other processors. In addition, SMA and other defendants have agreed to utilize Baird's Bullseye companies to market milk for SMA, which further enables SMA and Baird to monitor and confirm compliance with defendants' conspiracy because SMA and Baird control the amounts, origins and destinations of nearly all Grade A milk shipped in the Southeast.

SMA requires its members to pay excessive, anti-competitive and unlawful fees and dues. Baird's Bullseye companies inefficiently haul excessive quantities of milk into the Southeast, thus generating large hauling bills. Since defendants have eliminated alternative means for dairy cooperatives to access bottling plants, dairy cooperatives have no other choice but to pay SMA's and Baird's fees, dues and bills. In addition, SMA and Baird, in collaboration with other defendants, have "flooded" the Southeast market by pooling on the Southeast market substantial and ...

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